Stars with similar mass to our own sun tend to be situated in the middle of the main sequence, an observed arrangement of stars based on their luminosity and size. They fuse hydrogen with ease in their larger cores which are too large and hot to be convective with the rest of the star. As a result, these stars experience a much shorter lifespan than red dwarf stars and will exhaust their supply of fusible material within around 10 billion years. The greater rate of fusion also means a higher temperature for the star, placing the surface temperature of these stars around 6000k. During this time, helium builds up in their cores until the fusion pressure from hydrogen fusion is no longer great enough to maintain equilibrium with gravitational pressure. At this time the core of the star begins to contract, increasing in temperature and pressure until conditions are met for helium fusion. The radiation pressure from the helium fusion is great enough to push the outer layers of the sun away, increasing the radius of the star massively. This stage of a star’s life categorizes the star as a red giant. Depending on the mass of the star, the end stages of the star can vary greatly. The wide variety of behaviors for the last stages of life for this type of star each have unique characteristics and tend to be classified under different star families, and thus will each be covered in separate entries.


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